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Research confirms the fish richness of the megadiverse Madidi Nationwide Park, Bolivia — ScienceDaily

  • FISH

The variety of fish species recorded in Madidi Nationwide Park and Pure Built-in Administration Space (PNANMI), Bolivia has doubled to a staggering 333 species — with as many as 35 species new to science — in response to a research carried out as a part of the Identification Madidi expedition led by the Wildlife Conservation Society. The outcomes are described within the newest difficulty of Neotropical Hydrobiology and Aquatic Conservation.

The research lists the fish species whose presence in Madidi has been confirmed, together with these recorded in the course of the Madidi expeditions, and a compilation of species occurrences listed in earlier research, offering an estimate of the whole ichthyological richness for this protected space. The species record for the Madidi protected space consists of 35 doable new species for science.

Species vary in measurement from the invasive arapaima (Arapaima gigas), a mouth respiration big weighing in at greater than 200 kg and greater than 3 m lengthy, to the seasonally considerable killifish (Anablepsoides beniensis) from the Rivulidae household present in swimming pools in pure savannas which are simply 1.5 cm lengthy. The record additionally consists of essentially the most engaging gamefish from the Amazon, the golden dorado (Salminus brasiliensis), in addition to migratory catfish from the Amazonian goliath catfish (Brachyplatystoma filamentosum) to the tiny chipi chipi pencil catfish whose large collective migration is a neighborhood phenomenon (Trichomycterus barbouri). One other killifishorestias sp.) is present in a number of the highest Andean lakes at 4,300 m in Madidi, whereas within the stagnant ponds of the fantastic Amazon electrical knife fish (Gymnotus carapo) and the swamp eel (Synbranchus madeirae), and within the fast-flowing streams of the Amazon headwaters, a number of species of bare catfish (astroblepus spp.), together with possible a number of new species for science.

The 35 doable new species for science embody candidates of the genus knodus, Microgenys, Moenkhausia, Characidium, Apareiodon, Brachyhypopomus, Ernstichthys (genus reported for the primary time in Bolivia), astroblepus, Trichomycterus (together with one species not too long ago described and named in honor of a pioneer French ichthyologist in Bolivia), and a three-barbled catfish (cetopsorhamdia), a hanging pike cichlid (crenicichla) and an enthralling bumblebee catfish (Microglanis), amongst others.

The biodiversity surveys and discipline analysis have been carried out between 2015 to 2018 by specialists from the Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS), the Institut de Recherche pour le Développement de Montpellier (France) and the Nationwide Museum of Pure Historical past and the Ecology Institute of the Universidad Mayor of San Andres. Madidi might be the world’s most biologically various protected space because of a singular altitudinal gradient of virtually 6,000 m spanning the Tropical Andes and the Amazon.

For 4 years, the specialists carried out intensive ichthyological sampling at 13 websites in Madidi Nationwide Park, utilizing totally different sampling strategies: electrofishing, gill nets, trawls, hook and line, and ichthyoplankton nets. Ichthyoplankton species have been recognized by genetic characterization (metabarcoding). A complete of 333 species distributed in 43 households and 13 orders have been recorded. This quantity doubles the beforehand identified ichthyofauna (161) in Madidi.

The most important variety of species are discovered within the order Characiformes (139 species; 41.7 %), adopted by Siluriformes (137 species; 41.1 %), and Cichliformes (19 species; 5.7 %), which collectively signify 88.6 % of species richness. The remaining 11.4 % is distributed in 10 different orders. The households with the best variety of species are the characids (73 species; 21.9 %), loricariids (36; 10.8 %), heptapterids (21; 6.3 %), pimelodids (21; 6.3 %) and cichlids (19; 5.7 %) .

Lead creator of the research, Guido Miranda, of the Wildlife Conservation Society mentioned “With an extension of 18,957.5 sq. kilometers (7,319 sq. miles), Madidi covers 1.3 % of the Madeira River basin, however conserves 25 % of the identified species within the basin Madidi additionally represents just one.8 % of the Bolivian territory, but it surely conserves virtually 40 % of the ichthyofauna recorded in Bolivia.This research has greater than doubled our data about fish variety on this unbelievable protected space, however with a number of sub-basins but to pattern within the park, that is solely the start.”

Dr. Rob Wallace, Senior Conservation Scientist on the Wildlife Conservation Society, chief of the Identidad Madidi expeditions, and coauthor, mentioned “Because of its nice variety of habitats, principally because of the altitudinal gradient from 184 meters (Heath River) to six,044 meters (Chaupi Orko Peak), Madidi is taken into account essentially the most biodiverse protected space on the planet.The Identidad Madidi initiative aimed to firmly set up this record-breaking standing for the park, whereas speaking the significance of Madidi to the Bolivian individuals.That is the primary of a number of biodiversity abstract articles that the Bolivian scientists on the expedition are systematizing to share the outcomes of our efforts with Bolivia and the world.”

Research authors embody: Guido Miranda-Chumacero1, 3Jaime Sarmiento2Soraya Barrera2Martin Velasco2Jorge Molina-Rodriguez1,3Gabriel Tarifa3Camila Ramallo3Oscar Ayala3Kelvin Herbas3Erick Loayza3Debora Alvestegui3Gustavo Alvarez1Jean-François Renno4Cedric Mariac4 & Robert B. Wallace1

1Wildlife Conservation Society, Bolivia Program, La Paz.

2Nationwide Museum of Pure Historical past, La Paz, Bolivia.

3Aquatic Ecology Unit, Institute of Ecology, Universidad Mayor de San Andrés, La Paz, Bolivia.

4Analysis Institute for Growth, Montpellier, France.

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